Application of Kaolin in Rubber

Kaolin is widely used as a filler in the rubber industry. Adding it to latex mixtures can improve the mechanical properties of rubber, increase the mechanical strength of rubber products, enhance wear resistance and chemical stability, and extend the hardening time of rubber.

 

  1. Modification of kaolin and its application characteristics in rubber

Kaolin is an important filler for rubber products. When used as a filler in the past, it is generally believed that the product performance mainly depends on the particle size distribution and particle specific surface area. However, modern scientific research has proved that the surface of kaolin powder after beneficiation, purification and crushing has a large number of hydroxyl groups and oxygen-containing functional groups, which is acidic, and the kaolin after calcination is more acidic.

In addition, kaolin has a large specific surface area and high surface energy, resulting in poor compatibility with organic polymer systems. Therefore, when used as fillers for polymer-based materials (such as epoxy resin or vinyl resin), the surface must be modified to obtain products with better performance.

 

  1. Application of nano kaolin in rubber

Nano-kaolin can be used in various rubber products, significantly improving its mechanical and physical properties, while reducing its production costs, especially in terms of elasticity, flex resistance, barrier properties and elongation at break.

In butadiene rubber, EPDM rubber, natural rubber and nitrile rubber, nano-kaolin has better reinforcing performance than white carbon black, and it is close to the reinforcing performance of white carbon black in styrene butadiene rubber. It is suitable for tires. Side rubber, inner tube, golf rubber, rubber wire, nitrile sealing rubber, sole rubber, rubber roller, glue stick, conveyor belt rubber and other products.

In terms of mechanical properties, in the EPDM, natural rubber, and styrene-butadiene rubber used in rubber jacket/insulated cables, nanometers can be close to the current mainstream reinforcing materials, white carbon black and carbon black. Its electrical properties are far superior to other materials, comparable to calcined kaolin. Nano-kaolin is used in rubber wires and cables to achieve a combination of high mechanical properties and high electrical properties.

In natural rubber such as bladders and inner tubes, nano-kaolin can be used alone as a reinforcing material for the system, which can provide performance beyond white carbon black and close to carbon black. Adding 40-60phr can improve the mechanical properties, processing performance, and gas of the system. The performance of compact and reachable products exceeds the peak. IIR itself has very excellent barrier properties. Adding nano-kaolin, even if a small amount of 10phr is added, can increase the air-tightness of IR by more than 3 times; at the same time, the high-reinforcing properties of nano-kaolin give the system good performance.

Introduction of 3PE anti-corrosive coating steel pipe

What is the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe ?

What is the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe ?

TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe are upgrading products on the basis of the outer single layer polyethylene and internal epoxy coated steel pipe, it is the most advanced anticorrosive long distance steel pipeline buried underground. Do you know what is the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe?

Introduction of 3PE anti-corrosive coating steel pipe

What is the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coating Structure

The outer wall of TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe is made of 3PE hot-melt junction winding process.  It is composed of three layers, epoxy resin(bottom layer), adhesive(intermediate layer) and polyethylene(outer layer). The inner wall adopts the anti-corrosion way of thermal spraying epoxy powder, and the powder is evenly coated on the surface of the steel pipe after being heated and fused at high temperature to form a steel-plastic composite layer, which greatly improves the thickness of the coating and the adhesion of the coating, enhances the ability of bump resistance and corrosion resistance, and makes it widely used.

 

3PE anticorrosive coating steel pipe refers to the three layers of polyolefin outside anti-corrosion steel pipe, its anticorrosion structure generally consists of three layer structure, epoxy powder, adhesive and PE, in practice, these three materials mixed melting processing, and steel pipe firmly together, forming a layer of polyethylene (PE) anticorrosive coating, has a good corrosion resistance, resistance to moisture permeability and mechanical properties, is widely used in the oil pipeline industry.

 

Performance Characteristics

Different from the general steel pipe, TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe has been made internal and external anticorrosive, has a very high sealing, long-term operation can greatly save energy, reduce costs, protect the environment. With strong corrosion resistance, convenient construction, its service life is up to 50 years. It also has good corrosion resistance and impact resistance at low temperature. At the same time, it also has high epoxy strength, good softness of hot melt adhesive, etc., and has high anti-corrosion reliability; In addition, our TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe is produced in strict accordance with national standard specifications, obtained anticorrosive steel pipe drinking water safety certificate, to ensure the safety of drinking water.

 

3PE anticorrosive steel pipe made of polyethylene material, this material is marked by good corrosion resistance, directly extend the service life of anticorrosive steel pipe;

3PE anticorrosive steel pipe because of its different specifications, can be divided into ordinary grade and strengthening grade, the PE thickness of ordinary grade 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe  is about 2.0mm, and the PE thickness of the strengthening grade is about 2.7mm. As an ordinary external anticorrosion on casing pipe, the ordinary grade is more than enough. If it is used to directly transport acid, alkali, natural gas and other fluids, try to use the strengthened grade 3PE anticorrosion steel pipe.

 

The above is about the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe, mainly reflected in the performance characteristics and application of different, the correct selection of the appropriate anticorrosive steel pipe, play its due role.

 

 

 

 

Thread Gauges for Casing Pipes Used in Oil Drilling Projects

Thread Gauges for Casing Pipes Used in Oil Drilling Projects

Casing thread gauge is a deep machining product with high requirement and large amount in oil drilling and production engineering.A single oil casing is connected by thread into a long string thousands of meters long and able to withstand a pressure of hundreds of atmospheres — a tubular high-pressure vessel.In 1924, the API established the first standard for oil well pipes. The casing joint thread was 10 teeth per inch and 8 teeth per inch V-thread, but it was later replaced by API8 round thread and offset ladder thread, and is still in use today.API SPEC 5B provides that the common casing threads are round thread (CSG) and offset trapezoidal thread (BCSG).

Thread Gauges for Casing Pipes Used in Oil Drilling Projects

These two kinds of threaded joints are generally used in oil and gas fields .With the oil and gas exploration and development, especially in deep wells and ultra deep wells and high pressure gas well and directional well, hydrogen sulfide-bearing wells such as the increase of oil casing joint performance put forward higher requirements, the use of API round thread and partial ladder model of air tightness, bonding strength and corrosion resistance can meet requirements, for countries to have a special development and application of the nipple.API round thread, partial ladder thread and some special thread are described in the following.

 

API round thread gauge: API Round Thread Gauge is divided into Casing Short Round Thread Gauge (CSG) and Casing Long Round Thread Gauge (LCSG).Tubing Thread Gauge is abbreviated as TBG and is subdivided into Non-Thickness Tubing Thread Gauge (TBG) and External Thickness Tubing Thread Gauge (UP TBG).

 

The thread form of the circular thread gauge is a tapered pipe thread without shoulder, which needs to be connected with a collar. The tooth type is triangular, the bottom of the dome is round, the tooth angle is 60°, the thread taper is 1:16, the bisector of the tooth angle is perpendicular to the axis. When the thread is tightened, the tooth side of the internal and external thread is sealed.

 

Gauges for offset trapezoidal thread:BCSG, non-shoulder tapered pipe thread with collar connection, offset trapezoidal, flat top, flat bottom, tooth type.

Rare Earth Oxide-Lanthanum Oxide

Lanthanum oxide is a chemical substance and its molecular formula is La2O3. Slightly soluble in water, soluble in acid, easy to absorb carbon dioxide and water in the exposed air, mainly used to make precision optical glass and optical fiber.

Use:

Mainly used to manufacture precision optical glass and optical fiber. Also used in the electronics industry as ceramic capacitors, piezoelectric ceramic dopants. It is also used as a raw material for lanthanum boride and a catalyst for petroleum separation and refining.

Application areas:

  1. Mainly used in the manufacture of special alloy precision optical glass, high-refraction optical fiber board, suitable for cameras, cameras, microscope lenses and advanced optical instrument prisms.
  2. It is also used in the manufacture of ceramic capacitors, piezoelectric ceramic dopants and X-ray luminescent materials, such as lanthanum bromide powder. It is obtained by extracting lanthanum phosphite or burning lanthanum carbonate or lanthanum nitrate. It can also be obtained by thermal decomposition of lanthanum oxalate.
  3. Used as a catalyst for various reactions, such as catalyzing the oxidation reaction of carbon monoxide when doped with cadmium oxide, and catalyzing the reaction of carbon monoxide hydrogenation to methane when doped with palladium. It is a very effective selective catalyst for the oxidative coupling of methane to ethane and ethylene.
  4. Lanthanum oxide impregnated with lithium oxide or zirconium oxide (1%) can be used to make ferrite magnets.
  5. Used to improve the temperature dependence and dielectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) and strontium titanate (SrTiO3) ferroelectrics, and to manufacture fiber optics and optical glass.

Our lanthanum oxide test report:

 

 

 

 

 

 

What are Differences Between Steel Grades of 34CrMo4 in Different Standards ?

What are Differences Between Steel Grades of 34CrMo4 in Different Standards ?

What are Differences Between Steel Grades of 34CrMo4 in Different Standards ?

Gas cylinders can be made from aluminum, steel, alloys, and composite materials. Mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and impact resistance are critical factors in determining which material is used. Carbon fiber composite cylinders can be very light due to the high tensile strength of carbon fiber, but are more difficult to manufacture. So the alloy steel 34CrMo4 is the usually used material because of its overall mechanical property and cost. All the standards of GB/T 18248, EN10297, JIS G3429 and EN 10083-3, have its own steel grade of 34CrMo4. So is it the same in these different standards ? Now let’s take a look at this comparison chart below to see their difference.

What are Differences Between Steel Grades of 34CrMo4 in Different Standards ?

325mm 7mm EN 10297 hot rolled 38Mn6 seamless steel gas cylinder tube

 

What are Differences Between Steel Grades of 34CrMo4 in Different Standards ?

What are Differences Between Steel Grades of 34CrMo4 in Different Standards ?

In all these standards, 34CrMo4 in Chinese standard GB/T18248 is the most strict which can meet all the requirements of other standards.

Differences between plastic lined steel pipes and plastic coated steel pipes

Differences between plastic lined steel pipes and plastic coated steel pipes

  1. Plastic lined steel pipe:
  • Definition: Plastic-lined steel pipe is a steel-plastic composite product made of steel pipe as the base pipe, with its inner and outer surfaces treated, zinc plating and baking paint or spray paint on the outside, and lined with polyethylene plastic or other anti-corrosion layers.
  • Classification: Plastic lined steel pipe is divided into cold water plasticlined steel pipe, hot water lined plastic steel pipe, plastic rolling plastic lined steel pipe.
  • Lining plastic: polyethylene (PE), heat-resistant polyethylene (PE-RT), cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X), polypropylene (PP-R) hard polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C).

 

  1. Plastic coated steel pipe:
  • Definition: Plastic coated steel pipe is a steel-plastic composite product which is made of steel pipe as the base pipe and plastic as the coating material. The inner and outer surfaces are melted and coated with plastic layer or other anti-corrosive layer.
  • Classification: plastic coated steel pipe is divided into polyethylene coated steel pipe and epoxy resin coated steel pipe according to the different coating materials.
  • Plastic coating material: polyethylene powder,polyethylene tapeand epoxy resin powder.

1.Plastic lined steel pipe: 1)Definition: Plastic-lined steel pipe is a steel-plastic composite product made of steel pipe as the base pipe, with its inner and outer surfaces treated, zinc plating and baking paint or spray paint on the outside, and lined with polyethylene plastic or other anti-corrosion layers. 2)Classification: Plastic lined steel pipe is divided into cold water plastic lined steel pipe, hot water lined plastic steel pipe, plastic rolling plastic lined steel pipe. 3)Lining plastic: polyethylene (PE), heat-resistant polyethylene (PE-RT), cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X), polypropylene (PP-R) hard polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C). 2.Plastic coated steel pipe: 1)Definition: Plastic coated steel pipe is a steel-plastic composite product which is made of steel pipe as the base pipe and plastic as the coating material. The inner and outer surfaces are melted and coated with plastic layer or other anti-corrosive layer. 2)Classification: plastic coated steel pipe is divided into polyethylene coated steel pipe and epoxy resin coated steel pipe according to the different coating materials. 3)Plastic coating material: polyethylene powder,polyethylene tape and epoxy resin powder. 3.Product labeling: 1)Code number of plastic lining steel pipe for cold water is SP-C. 2)Code number of plastic lining steel pipe for hot water is SP-CR. 3)Polyethylene coated steel pipe code is SP-T-PE. 4)Epoxy coated steel pipe code is SP-T-EP. 4.Production process: 1)Plastic lining: after the steel pipe is pre-treated, the outer wall of the plastic pipe is evenly coated with adhesive, and then placed in the steel pipe to make it expand and form a steel-plastic composite product. 2)Plastic coating: steel pipe pre-treatment after heating, high-speed plastic coating treatment, and then the formation of the steel-plastic composite products. 5.Performance of plastic lined steel pipes and plastic coated steel pipes: 1)Property of plastic layer of plastic lined steel pipes: Bonding strength: the bonding strength between the steel and the lining plastic of the plastic lined pipe for cold water should not be less than 0.3Mpa (30N/cm2) : the bonding strength between the steel and the lining plastic of the plastic lined pipe for hot water should not be less than 1.0Mpa (100N/cm2). External anti-corrosion performance: the product after galvanized baking paint or spray paint, at room temperature in 3% (weight, volume ratio) sodium chloride aqueous solution soaked for 24 hours, the appearance should be no corrosion white, peeling, rise,wrinkle. Flattening test: the plastic lined steel pipe does not crack after 1/3 of the outer diameter of the flattened pipe, and there is no separation between the steel and the plastic. 2)Coating performance of plastic coated steel pipe: Pinhole test: the inner surface of the plastic coated steel pipe was detected by electric spark detector, and no electric spark was generated. Adhesion: the adhesion of polyethylene coating should not be less than 30N/10mm.The adhesive force of epoxy resin coating is 1~3 grade. Flattening test: no cracks occurred after 2/3 of the outer diameter of the polyethylene coated steel pipe were flattened.And no peeling occurred between the steel pipe and the coating after 4/5 of the outer diameter of the epoxy resin coated steel pipe were flattened.

  1. Product labeling:
  • Code number of plastic lining steel pipe for cold water is SP-C.
  • Code number of plastic lining steel pipe for hot wateris SP-CR.
  • Polyethylene coated steel pipe code is SP-T-PE.
  • Epoxy coated steel pipecode is SP-T-EP.

 

  1. Production process:
  • Plastic lining: after the steel pipe is pre-treated, the outer wall of the plastic pipe is evenly coated with adhesive, and then placed in the steel pipe to make it expand and form a steel-plastic composite product.
  • Plastic coating: steel pipe pre-treatment after heating, high-speed plastic coating treatment, and then the formation of the steel-plastic composite products.

 

  1. Performance of plastic lined steel pipes and plastic coated steel pipes:
  • Property of plastic layer of plastic lined steel pipes:

Bonding strength: the bonding strength between the steel and the lining plastic of the plastic lined pipe for cold water should not be less than 0.3Mpa (30N/cm2) : the bonding strength between the steel and the lining plastic of the plastic lined pipe for hot water should not be less than 1.0Mpa (100N/cm2).

External anti-corrosion performance: the product after galvanized baking paint or spray paint, at room temperature in 3% (weight, volume ratio) sodium chloride aqueous solution soaked for 24 hours, the appearance should be no corrosion white, peeling, rise,wrinkle.

Flattening test: the plastic lined steel pipe does not crack after 1/3 of the outer diameter of the flattened pipe, and there is no separation between the steel and the plastic.

  • Coating performance of plastic coated steel pipe:

Pinhole test: the inner surface of the plastic coated steel pipe was detected by electric spark detector, and no electric spark was generated.

Adhesion: the adhesion of polyethylene coating should not be less than 30N/10mm.The adhesive force of epoxy resin coating is 1~3 grade.

Flattening test: no cracks occurred after 2/3 of the outer diameter of the polyethylene coated steel pipe were flattened.And no peeling occurred between the steel pipe and the coating after 4/5 of the outer diameter of the epoxy resin coated steel pipe were flattened.